Freeware Zodiac

Pictures of the nightsky

The Solar System

Current image of the sun.
Solar eclipse - credit: Bill Livingston/NOAO/AURA/NSF ZONECL.JPG
Mercury conjunction with the sun - NASA
Mercury - credit: USGS, NASA MERCURY.GIF
Venus - credit: NASA VENUS.JPG
Earth - credit: NASA AARDE.JPG
Mars - credit: USGS MARS.JPG
Astroid Gastra - credit: NASA GASPRA.JPG
Astroid Ida - credit: NASA IDA.JPG
Jupiter - credit: NASA JUPITER.JPG
Saturn - credit: NASA SATURNUS.JPG
Neptune - credit: NASA NEPTUNUS.JPG
Pluto - Credit: NASA, ESA, and M. Buie (Southwest Research Institute) PLUTO.JPG
Pluto - Credit: NASA/APL/SwRI PLUTO2.JPG
Sedna - credit: NASA/Caltech/M. Brown SEDNA.JPG
Halley's Comet - credit: NOAO/AURA/NSF HALLEY.JPG

Mars Gigapixel Panorama - Curiosity rover: Martian solar days 136-149


Current moon phaseCURRENT MOON PHASE
Moon, first quarter - credit: Diederik BrusseeMAAN.JPG
Full moon - credit: NASA MAANVOL.JPG
Full moon seen from Apollo - credit: NASA MAANAPP.JPG
Lunar eclipse at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife - credit: ESA MAANECL.JPG

Phobos and Deimos, the moons of Mars, have sizes of only 24 km and 12 km. That is much smaller than satellites of other planets. Phobos has an orbit on an attitude of 9400 km (the distance to the centre of Mars), the attitude of Deimos is 23500 km. The mean synodic period of Phobos is 7 hours, 39 minutes and 27 seconds and the period of Deimos is 30 hours, 21 minutes and 16 seconds. The radius of Mars is 3400 km. So it is not remarkable that these moons have been discovered newly in 1877 by the American Astronomer Asaph Hall.
But it is remarkable that in 1726 the moons of Mars has been described very well in number, turnaround time and distance to the centre of Mars by Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) in his book "Gulliver's Travels". ( Travels into several Remote Nations of the World - By Captain Lemuel Gulliver, Part III). He wrote:
They have likewise discovered two lesser stars, or satellites, which revolve about Mars, whereof the innermost is distant from the center of the primary planet exactly three of his diameters, and the outermost five; the former revolves in the space of ten hours, and the latter in twenty-one and a half; so that the squares of their periodical times are very near in the same proportion with the cubes of their distance from the center of Mars, which evidently shows them to be governed by the same law of gravitation that influences the other heavenly bodies.

Orbid (x size of Mars) Orbital period (hour)
PhobosDeimos PhobosDeimos
Swift's description in 17263,05,0 10,021,5
Discovered in 18772,86,9 7.730,3

Asaph Hall named the moons of Mars to the two sons of the Greek god of war Mars. Is seems that in the days of Homerus (8th century BC) the planet Mars have passed the earth so closely that the moons were visible with the naked eye. Therefore it is better to speak of a rediscovery of these moons. The Astronomy has no explanation for this phenomenon.

Jovian moons - credit: NASA
Saturnian moons - credit: NASA
Moons of Uranus - credit: NASA
Moons of Neptune - credit: NASA
Moons of Pluto
credit: Dr. R. Albrecht, ESA/ESO Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility; NASA
Credit: NASA, ESA, H. Weaver (JHU/APL), A. Stern (SwRI), and the HST Pluto Companion Search Team
MANEN-PLUTO.JPG (Charon, Nix en Hydra)


The brightest star in the sky is Sirius, at a distance of less than 9 lightyears of the earth. The surface temperature is about 9700 K, so the star appears blue-white. Since 1862 we know that Sirius is a double star. The star we see is called Sirius-A. The second star is Sirius-B, a white dwarf, which is only visible with the aid of a telescope.
2000 years ago Sirius had a different colour. Homer, Ptolemy (in his Almanac of 140 AD) and several Roman poets described Sirius as a red star. This forms a problem for the modern astronomy.
The Big Bang theory, the evolution theory of the stars, claims that stars are billions years old and that their colour is changing very slowly. The quickest change in colour happens when a red giant is changing into a white dwarf. But that process needs millions of years.
The change in colour of Sirius is in conflict with this theory. This fact is called an anomaly, a fact that in science is neglected.


49 constellations - credit: C. Noorlander STARPICT.ZIP
Star Program - credit: C. Noorlander SKYPHOTO.ZIP
Cluster NGC 4755, Jewel Box, in the Southern Cross - credit: NOAO/AURA/NSF JEWELBOX.JPG
Cluster M45, Pleiaden, in the Bull - credit: Jan Timmermans PLEIADEN.JPG


M42, NGC 1976, Orion Nebula - credit: Diederik Brussee ORIONNEV.JPG
IC 434, with a.o. Horse's Head Nebula, in Orion - credit: T.A. Rector (NOAO/AURA/NSF) and Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA/NASA) HORSEHEADA.JPG
B33, NGC 2024, Horse's Head Nebula, in Orion - credit: N.A.Sharp/NOAO/AURA/NSF HORSEHEADB.JPG
B33, NGC 2024, Horse's Head Nebula, in Orion - credit: ESO HORSEHEADC.JPG
M20, NGC 6514, Trifid Nebula, in the Archer - credit: Todd Boroson/NOAO/AURA/NSF TRIFID.JPG
NGC 2264, Cone nebula, in the Monoceros - credit: NASA and the ACS Science Team CONE.JPG
M1, NGC 1952, Crab nebula, Supernova 1054, in the Bull - credit: Jay Gallagher (U. Wisconsin)/WIYN/NOAO/NSF CRABNEV.JPG
M16, NGC 6611, Eagle Nebula, in the Serpent - credit: Bill Schoening/NOAO/AURA/NSF M16.JPG

The velocity of light

There is another problem for modern astronomers. The velocity of light (about 300,000 km/sec) is not constant but slowly decreasing. In 1944, despite a strong preference for the constancy of atomic quantities, N. E. Dorsey [56] was reluctantly forced to admit: "As is well known to those acquainted with the several determinations of the velocity of light, the definitive values successively reported have, in general, decreased monotonously from Cornu's 300.4 megametres per second in 1874 to Anderson's 299.776 in 1940" in N. E. Dorsey, 'The Velocity Of Light', Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 34, (Part 1), pp. 1-110, October, 1944.
Nowadays the velocity of light is determined with the aid of atomic clocks in stead of dynamic clocks. However, atomic clocks are hallmarked by the velocity of light, see Barry Setterfield. So this is not an objective determination. This implies questions and uncertainties for the determination of the age of distant heavenly bodies. The universe is younger than generally assumed.


M31, NGC 224, Andromeda Spiral - credit: Bill Schoening, Vanessa Harvey/REU program/NOAO/AURA/NSF ANDROMEDA.JPG
NGC 2207 and IC 2163, in the Big Dog - credit: NASA and Hubble Heritage Team (STScI) NGC2207.JPG
NGC 4319 and quasar Mrk 205, in Dragon - credit: NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)
NASA states that NGC 4319 is 80 million light-years from Earth and that Markarian 205 (Mrk 205) is more than 14 times farther away, residing 1 billion light-years from Earth.
However there is a problem. Between them there exists a luminous bridge. It is hardly visible at the NASA-picture, but after processing you can see it: (1 2 3 ). At another pictures the lightbridge is visible too.
NGC 7603 and NGC 7603B with 2 quasars between, in the Fishes - credit: Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)
This is an extraordinary couple of galaxies, for the redshift of NGC 7603 is 0,030C and the shift of NGC 7603B is almost twice: 0,057C. Yet they are connected by a luminous bridge. Besides in the luminous bridge there are 2 quasars, with redshifts of 0,391C and 0,243C. This is the most impressive case of a system of anomalous redshifts discovered so far.
NGC 1232, in Eridanus - credit: ESO/IDA/Danish 1.5 m/R.Gendler and A. Hornstrup NGC1232.JPG
NGC 4414, in Coma Berenices - credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/ STScI/ NASA) NGC4414.JPG
Hickson Compact Group 87, troupe of four galaxies, in the Sea Goat - credit: Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA/NASA) HCG87.JPG
NGC 5247, in the Virgin - credit: NOAO/AURA/NSF NGC5247.JPG
M104, NGC 4594, Sombrero Galaxy, in the Virgin - credit: Todd Boroson/NOAO/AURA/NSF M104.JPG
NGC 1365, in the Furnace - credit: ESO NGC1365.JPG
M64, Blackeye Galaxy, in Coma Berenices - credit: John Gleason/Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF M64.JPG
NGC 4676, The Mice, in Coma Berenices - credit: NASA and the ACS Science Team NGC4676.JPG
M51, NGC 5194, Whirlpool Galaxy, in the Hunting Dogs - credit: Todd Boroson/NOAO/AURA/NSF WHIRLPOOL.JPG
UGC 10214, Tadpole, in the Dragon - credit: NASA and the ACS Science Team UGC10214.JPG
M81, NGC 3031, in the Great Bear - credit: N.A.Sharp/NOAO/AURA/NSF M81.JPG
M82, NGC 3034, in the Great Bear - credit: N.A.Sharp/NOAO/AURA/NSF M82.JPG
M98, NGC 4192, in Coma Berenices - credit: AURA/NOAO/NSF, its light has blueshift M98.JPG
M101, NGC 5457, in the Great Bear - credit: George Jacoby, Bruce Bohannan, Mark Hanna/NOAO/AURA/NSF M101.JPG

The heavens declare the glory of God; and the expanse proclaims His handiwork. (Psalm 19:1).

O Lord, how excellent is Your name in all the earth! You have set Your glory above the heavens ... When I look at Your heavens, the work of Your fingers, the moon and the stars which You have established; what is man that You are mindful of him, and the son of man, that You visit him? (Psalm 8:1,3,4).

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